‘The Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan’ by Cheik-Zaman (Guitat) from International Press Correspondence. Vol. 2 No. 9. March 10, 1922.

Azerbaijani: Communists of Azerbaijan. on the ground from the left: 1) Mir Jafar Bagirov; 2) ?; 3) Teymur Aliyev; 4) Chingiz Yildirim; 5) Aliheydar Garayev; 6) Gazanfar Musabeyov; 7) Agahuseyn Kazimov; 8) Rahim Huseynov. Seated from the left: 1) Samad Agha Agamalıoğlu; 2) Ibrahim Abilov; 3) Dadash Bunyadzade; 4) Mirza Davud Huseynov; 5) Sergo Orconokidze; 6) Nariman Narimanov; 7) Hamid Sultanov; 8) Mir Bashir Gasimov; 9) Mammad Khan; 10) Habib Jabiyev (editor of “Communist” newspaper published in Azerbaijani language) Standing, 1st row from left: 1) Alexander Serebrovsky; 10) Levon Mirzoyan; 11) Mashadi Huseyn; 12) Sumbatzade Standing, 2nd row from the left: 2) Mustafa Guliyev; 3) Mukhtar Hajiyev; 4) Rodionov (Chairman of the Baku Soviet); 5) Ruhulla Akhundov; 6) Box; 7) Chervushin; 8) Mashadi Hussein, 1920.
‘The Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan’ by Cheik-Zaman (Guitat) from International Press Correspondence. Vol. 2 No. 9. March 10, 1922.

If the Bolshevist Revolution could not find its complete counterpart in Europe because of the treason of the social patriots, its force of attraction was tremendous in the Islam world, particularly among the Mohammedans of Russia who number about 40,000,000.

Of the Russian Mohammedans who have conserved their traditions, their language and their culture despite the rigors of Czarism, the people of Azerbaijan undeniably hold first place.

This is the second time that a Soviet regime has been established in Azerbaijan. The first time it lasted only from March 28th to September 1918. To the number of great martyrs of the Bolshevik Revolution must be added the 25 Peoples’ Commissars of the first Bolshevik regime of Azerbaijan, who, overthrown by the Mensheviks (mostly Armenian) and deported to Turkestan, were all shot to death by another Menshevik organization.

Nariman Narimanov.

Very fortunately Comrade Narimanoff, the president of the Council of People’s Commissars of the first Bolshevik government of Azerbaijan, was able to escape arrest by reaching Astrakhan from where Lenin called him to Moscow to be the Peoples’ Commissar for the Orient.

The second Bolshevik Revolution in Azerbaijan was accomplished quietly at the end of April 1920, following the ultimatum of the Azerbaijan Communists, and strange as it may seem, the bourgeois parliament before disbanding, recognized the Communist government as the legal government in the country. The revolution was hastened by the state of mind of the army, by the exasperation of the peasants with the arbitrary will and extortion of the functionaries of all degrees, by the high cost of living and by the cessation of work in the petroleum fields, following the curtailment of the export of petroleum.

Since the Communists have come into power the spirit of the people has changed completely. While among the other Mohammedan peoples, monarchist and religious ideas, as well as the women’s veil still maintain their importance, in Azerbaijan the republican spirit always prevailed, even under the bourgeois government. While in Turkey and Persia women are forbidden by law to go out into the streets unveiled, at Baku in a monster demonstration of women, they made effigies of the mullah with their veils, and burnt them in fires as a symbol of the emancipation of women from the omnipotence of the clergy and enslaving customs.

Since the Bolshevik Revolution of Azerbaijan, the Communists have not only worked hard at home, but have spread their influence among the Mohammedan peoples. Thus, it is due to them that the Communist Party “Adalat”, has been created in Persia, and it is through the efforts of the young Red Army of Azerbaijan that a change has taken place in the very imperialistic policy of England toward Persia. Mustapha Kemal became affiliated with Moscow through the mediation of the Communists of Azerbaijan, when it was still under the bourgeois regime. However, it is true that Kemal Pasha is now lukewarm in his relations with the Communists, and according to recent, reports, under the dictatorship of Kemal, the great revolutionary Turk Mustapha Subhi, with ten devoted Communists, has been put to death.

Azeri SSR, 1928.

The greatest work of the revolutionists of Azerbaijan is the convening of the First Congress of the Orient, which was presided over by Comrade Narimanoff.

From the point of view of public instruction in Azerbaijan, more has been done than in Russia. Every illiterate person who attends the public schools receives a pyok (a food ration) and some tens of thousands of rubles make it possible for a person to devote the whole day to his education; without being obliged to work elsewhere.

Mirza Huseynov.

Economically Azerbaijan is richer than any other country, detached from Russia. In the production of petroleum Azerbaijan holds second place in the world after the United States. According to the statement of Comrade Housseinoff, Commissar for Foreign Affairs, economic life is growing better from day to day and is approaching the pre-war standard.

In order not to dissipate their energies, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia have together established a commercial delegation at Constantinople. It consists of the delegates of the three Soviet Republics of Transcaucasia, who, through this delegation are carrying on an extensive trade with Europe and America.

From the point of view of foreign relations; Azerbaijan is an independent republic and is represented in all places where the old bourgeois government had its representatives, and in addition has a representative in Moscow with all the prerogatives accorded to the other accredited powers affiliated with the Soviet Government. All the reports of the so-called hostility of Russia toward Azerbaijan circulated by the agents of the old bourgeois government are completely false.

Red Azerbaijan will play a significant role. The place which has fallen to Red Russia m Western Europe Azerbaijan will take with ease in the Islam world. However, its action will not be of a Pan-Islam nature, nor permeated with religion, but essentially Communistic. This was demonstrated by Azerbaijan in its convocation of the First Congress of the Orient, where there were representatives of all oppressed peoples, Mohammedan or otherwise.

People of the Caucasus.

Azerbaijan, a present, too well remembers the yoke of the old Czarism, to fall asleep on the morrow of its liberation. We must travel over many roads, whole-heartedly, united with the heroes of the sublime Bolshevik Revolution in Asia, in Africa and even in America, until all the oppressed peoples will be liberated not only from foreign capitalism, but also from their national oppressors.

The First Congress of the Orient was only the beginning. The Second Congress of the Orient, the calling together of which has been undertaken by the Communists of Azerbaijan, as in the first place, and should not be delayed, ought to sound the death knell to the ears of all oppressors and a new era should be opened to all oppressed peoples.

International Press Correspondence, widely known as”Inprecor” was published by the Executive Committee of the Communist International (ECCI) regularly in German and English, occasionally in many other languages, beginning in 1921 and lasting in English until 1938. Inprecor’s role was to supply translated articles to the English-speaking press of the International from the Comintern’s different sections, as well as news and statements from the ECCI. Many ‘Daily Worker’ and ‘Communist’ articles originated in Inprecor, and it also published articles by American comrades for use in other countries. It was published at least weekly, and often thrice weekly. The ECCI also published the magazine ‘Communist International’ edited by Zinoviev and Karl Radek from 1919 until 1926 monthly in German, French, Russian, and English. Unlike, Inprecor, CI contained long-form articles by the leading figures of the International as well as proceedings, statements, and notices of the Comintern. No complete run of Communist International is available in English. Both were largely published outside of Soviet territory, with Communist International printed in London, to facilitate distribution and both were major contributors to the Communist press in the U.S. Communist International and Inprecor are an invaluable English-language source on the history of the Communist International and its sections.

PDF of full issue: https://www.marxists.org/history/international/comintern/inprecor/1922/v02n019-mar-10-1922-inprecor.pdf

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